A fractal antenna is an antenna that employs or utilizes a fractal design which is approximately or exactly similar to a component of itself, with an aim to increase the efficacious boundary length or perimeter of the material that can accept as well as channelize electromagnetic radiation within a provided area or volume. In mathematics, fractals are an abstract object which is used to display patterns expanding at a small scale. They are also known as expanding or evolving symmetry.

## How Does A Fractal Antenna Work?

Basically, antennas produce energy when electrons are moved from one end of an antenna to the other and fractals are the shapes that constantly repeat themselves. In a fractal antenna, both these concepts are merged together and they work beautifully in cohesion. In an antenna, it is pretty essential to move the electrons at an optimal rate to ensure great performance by the antenna. This rate relies on the length of the antenna. In case of fractal antennas, the shapes constantly repeat themselves but exist at varying lengths. This allows a fractal antenna to work for multiple rates rather than a single rate in case of a normal antenna. Hence, multiple frequencies can be used in the case of a fractal antenna. This property of fractal antenna holds a high level of importance in various applications that work on varying frequencies.

## What Are The Uses Of Fractal Antennas?

Since the fractal design of the antenna reduces its total size it finds its usage in a variety of applications.

### RFID Technology

The small size of fractal antennas makes them an ideal choice for Radio-Frequency Identification Technology (RFID). RFID is the utilization of radio waves to read and capture the data stored on an RFID tag which has been further attached to an object.

### Cell Phones

The component which keeps your cell phones going is the printed circuit board utilized within it. The wireless capability has been provided to your cell phones by employing fractal antennas in PCB design. In fact, the wireless capability of a device increases and is enhanced by the use of fractal antennas.

### High Definition Televisions

You must be aware of earlier televisions which had only a single channel coming up at a single frequency. You had to adjust the television’s antenna to a particular angle to catch the right frequency. Now there are multiple channels which work on different frequencies. This makes fractal antennas an essential component of your HD televisions. Since a television has to work at multiple frequencies; fractal antennas prove a great help.

### Counterpoise

A counterpoise is a term used in electronics and radio communication for a network of wires, cables or a metal screen which is utilized as an effective replacement for an earth connection in the system of the radio antenna. It is perfect when, due to certain conditions, a normal earth ground system cannot be utilized. Fractal Antennas are an effective and a vital component of the counterpoise.

Besides the above, fractal antennas have found essential uses in fractal inductors, fractal resonators, tuned circuits, loads and ground planes.

## What Are The Benefits Of Fractal Antennas?

• Only a single antenna can be used instead of installing many. This saves time, cost as well as leaves space for other components.
• With the use of fractal antennas the size of the end product reduces.
• The combination of fractal technology and the concept of movement of electrons in antenna help to create small size antennas which are more efficient as well as dependable as compared to normal big sized antennas.
• Fractal Antennas impart the property of being versatile to a single object as with the inclusion of fractal antennas many functions can be incorporated into a single object.
• With the usage of fractal antennas, designs can be custom made according to the requirements instead of having few fixed designs in hand. This means, with fractal antennas, it has become possible to mold the design according to the requirements rather than molding the requirements according to the few fixed design options available.

## Fractal Antenna – Conclusion

Fractal Antennas are an integral part of electronics and radio communication. Research into more practical uses of fractal antennas is being carried out and in future, we can see them used in a plethora of real-world applications around us.

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